No effective chemical treatment is currently available. C. platani infection causes pronounced staining of the xylem (the cells which transport fluid and nutrients up the tree from the roots), severe wilting and yellowing (chlorosis) of the leaves, and tree death. What does plane wilt look like? This email address is being protected from spambots. platani. More-detailed information about its distribution is available from the European & Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (EPPO) database. occurring on sweet chestnut and Platanus spp. More than half of the sites surveyed included potential hosts planted during the previous 10 years, and the sites ranged in size from a minimum of 20 to, in some cases, more than 200 trees. Plane tree planting material, other than seeds, intended for planting must now have been grown throughout their lifetime in a pest-free area, i.e. Alternatively, suspected sightings can be made directly to the relevant plant health authority. Infection commonly occurs through spores entering fresh wounds on healthy plane trees, such as those made by wind damage, birds, insects, and tree-care tools such as saws and knives. var addyb8051417b5f8a15612565485770721a2 = 'executive.officer' + '@'; Infected sycamore and London planes have sparse foliage, small leaves, and elongated sunken cankers on the trunk and larger branches. The London plane {Platanus acerifolia Willd.) Can be a messy tree since drops a lot of leaves, twigs and fruit. On 21 April 2020, following the spread of the disease into northern France, new national measures came into effect to strengthen these protections further. It is caused by the ascomycete fungus Ceratocystis platani ( C. platani ) , which was formerly known as Ceratocystis platani f. platani and Ceratocystis fimbriata s. sp. Although its progress through France was initially slower, the fungus has been spreading northwards at a much faster rate in recent years. Once infected, trees die within three to seven years. Whilst the fungus that causes canker stain of plane is not yet in the UK, it is now in Italy, France and Greece, and responsible for notable tree fatalities.The fungus can infect specimens through wounds in bark or stems as well as root-to-root contact. Resilient the London plane tree may be, it is not without its share of problems, specifically disease. The definitive UK Ceratocystis text Detecting and identifying canker stain of plane, by Lucio Montecchio; revised and updated by Neville Fay and John Parker, is available from the LTOA (www.ltoa.org.uk) or Treeworks Environmental Practice (www.treeworks.co.uk). Since the first report of the stain canker agent Ceratocystis platani in 2001 in Geneva, dieback of London plane trees (Platanus × acerifolia) has focused greater attention and an epidemiological monitoring has been implemented, as part of a compelling state directive for stain canker management.Genetic identification was carried out in order to ascertain the presence or … Infected trees exhibit sparse chlorotic (yellowing) foliage, and sometimes sunken, elongated or lens-shaped cankers (like oozing sores) in the bark (below). This tree is a cross between two sycamore species: Platanus occidentalis (American sycamore) and Platanus orientalis (Oriental plane). Canker stain was detected by us in 1961 from 35-to 45-year-old London plane trees grow-ing as city street plantings in Modesto. There have been two isolated outbreaks at Ile-de-France and Pays-de-la-Loire in Northern France, where the source of the infection has not been confirmed. Until December 2019 the UK had European Union Protected Zone status for plane material to provide extra safeguards against accidental introductions of this disease on imported plane plants or wood. The disease has also been known as plane tree wilt. The first is called Canker stain of plane: A guide to prevention and is a brief reminder for tree officers and contractors of the importance of biosecurity in the fight to prevent Ceratocystis from entering the UK. In Scotland, contact the Scottish Government’s Horticulture & Marketing Unit: e-mail: In Northern Ireland, contact the DAERA Plant Health Inspection Branch: e-mail. Canker stain marks on the bark. There are unconfirmed reports from some other European countries. In all cases, provide precise details of the location and, if possible, clear, well lit, close-up photographs of the symptoms. They spread and in short notice will … Symptoms include: A sudden wilting of the leaves appears as the pathogen blocks up the water transport systems of the tree. London's plane trees could be under threat, warns the London Tree Officers Association (LTOA), from a new disease originating from the Continent. For unknown reasons the disease seems to have become less significant in the United States in recent years, but Greece and south-eastern France have experienced serious losses of shade trees. The canker may at first just appear to be a darkened, flattened area on the wood. Currently considered not to … This latter pathway is thought to be the main means by which the famous avenue of plane trees bordering the Canal du Midi in France became infected. Since then, the disease has spread to 28 areas in parks and along streets and has destroyed some 600 mature trees. Thes… The fungus, C. fimbriata, was pathogenic to London plane and California sycamore, P. racemosa. London plane trees and canker stain of plane - LTOA ITN interview John Parker, Chair of the London Tree Officers Association, and Greg Packman from the Royal Parks talk to ITN's Martin Stew about the threat posed to London plane trees by canker stain of plane (Ceratocystis platani). Ceratocystis platani causes a disease in plane trees known as "Canker stain of plane" (UK English) or "Canker of sycamore" (US English). A core strand will focus on tree diseases, and tree and soil health and resilience. Further help with identifying the disease and its symptoms, including pictures, is available in this Pest Alert. Of chief concern among these is the canker stain of plane (Ceratocystis platani) or CSP. Please contact This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. It includes chapters detailing morphology and infection strategies, movement and spread, symptoms, practical survey tips, sample collection and fungal identification, the UK and Italian methods of prevention and control and a comprehensive list of references and further reading. Powdery mildew is also an important foliage disease, usually affecting the appearance of trees in late summer. Preparation 2.1. Soil pH adaptable, moderately salt and drought tolerant. Canker stain of plane is a disease which can affect several species of plane trees (trees in the Platanus genus). It is called Canker stain or “sycamore canker”. (The term pest-free applies to disease-causing organisms as well as insect pests.). Their habit of shedding bark allows them to cast off particulate pollutants, while their large, stiff leaves make them excellent shade trees. by entering through wounds and causing canker stain disease and tree death. This pathogen poses a significant risk to plane trees in the UK because plane is widely used as an urban amenity species in parks and public gardens, and alongside streets and roads. The London plane tree (Platanus × acerifolia) is a very large deciduous tree that is quite resilient in urban conditions. The London Tree Officers Association (LTOA), has released a position statement outlining its concern about what it describes as ‘a number of significant pests and diseases threatening the health of London’s trees’. Tolerant hybrid plane trees are being developed, and one variety has been released to the market in France. (differing from the species only in its pathogenicity to Platanus spp. PZS surveys for CSP are carried out annually in the UK. It is spread predominantly by contaminated equipment being used on uninfected trees, although it can also be transported via root grafts. In the oldest known centre, at Gloucester, New Jersey, of the canker stain disease of the London plane tree (Platanus acerifolia), caused by Endoconidiophora [Ceratocystis] fimbriata f. platani Walter n.f. Click here to find out how to become an associate member, Members, if you don't login to the website, you won't see all the resources that are exclusively available to you, including presentations at quarterly meetings. As mentioned, plane tree diseases tend to mirror those that afflict its close relative the Oriental plane and American sycamore tree. Affected trees decline so markedly that it is unlikely that the disease would have remained undetected if it had reached here. ), is a Quarantine parasite listed in Annex IIAII of Directive 2000/29/EC. London plane tree is attacked by a number of pests. The LTOA, under contract to the Forestry Commission, has been carrying out these surveys in Greater London since 2013. It is caused by the ascomycete fungus Ceratocystis platani (C. platani), which was formerly known as Ceratocystis platani f. platani and Ceratocystis fimbriata s. sp. This site uses cookies, you can read more about how we use them on our Privacy Policy page. The ascomycete fungus Ceratocystis platani causes canker stain, also known as plane tree wilt, on several plane species, including London plane (Platanus x acerifolia) and its parents, P. orientalis and P. occidentalis. Among them is London plane (Platanus x acerifolia, also known as Platanus x hispanica), which is widely grown in British towns and cities. Its spread can therefore be limited by sourcing plant material from regions free of the disease, and by practising strict biosecurity (plant hygiene), such as disinfecting tools with alcohol before moving on to the next tree. They are valued for their shade, amenity value and toleration of air pollution and water shortages. See ‘Official action’ below for details of a survey conducted in 2014. These stains turn brown and make the bark burst. Members can attend, for free, the the LTOA meetings which are held four times a year and cover a wide range of tree related matters. It is not known to be present in the UK. The LTOA has developed considerable expertise in the subject and in October 2016 was confirmed as the UK partner in a new pan-European Euphresco project – Identification and early detection of Cryphonectria parasitica and Ceratocystis platani occurring on trees in Europe. Both documents have been influenced by the excellent work of the Forestry Commission, including the Keep it Clean campaign and the Ceratocystis platani Contingency Plan. This 2nd edition English-language version has been revised and updated by John Parker of the LTOA and Neville Fay of Treework Environmental Practice to include additional material relevant to the UK situation, including the methodology and results of the LTOA Protected Zone Status surveys for Ceratocystis in 2014, 2015 and 2016. Plane trees account for 10% of all trees in London, making them one of the most densely populated breeds in the capital. It produces resilient, long-lived spores which spread the disease, and these can persist in soil and on un-sterilised pruning and cutting tools. It spread rapidly through Italy and into France and Switzerland. London Tree Officers Association, Arboricultural Services, Sustainability and Green Space, Supporting Communities, Camden Town Hall, Judd Street, London WC1H 9JE, Visualisations Protocol for Urban Forestry. (See 'Origins and background' below.). Click here to login. Since 2014 the LTOA has been leading on monitoring plane trees in London for the presence of canker stain, working closely with the Forestry Commission, Forest Research and several tree officers and managers to survey thousands of trees across the capital to meet the requirements necessary to retain Protected Zone Status This ensures that plane saplings can only be imported into the country from other areas which have been confirmed as being free of the disease. The disease’s presence in our near neighbours and trading partners in continental Europe heightens the risk of its being accidentally introduced into the UK. London plane is a naturally occurring hybrid, and its parent species, eastern or Oriental plane (P. orientalis) and western or American plane (P. occidentalis), can also be infected. The second is called Canker stain of plane: Dealing with an outbreak. Promote plant vigor by protecting the tree from stresses. It is thought to be native to south-eastern USA and has spread throughout urban P. acerifolia populations planted in the large cities of the East coast. The response to discovery of a case in the UK would be guided by the Forestry Commission’s Contingency Plan. Staining can extend longitudinally (above and below) in the sapwood at a rate of 50–100cm per year. (Please note: where contact details in the Pest Alert differ from those given on this page, please use those on this page.). Three species in the Platanus genus are widely used as shade trees: P. occidentalis (sycamore, native to eastern US), P. racemosa (California sycamore, native to CA), and P. x acerifolia (a hybrid known as London plane). The new measures include more stringent requirements, and are based on the earlier Protected Zone arrangements. As the Mall in London, making them one of the most devastating these. Workers ' gloves, ropes, clothes and boots might also spread the disease can be. 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